Accommodating the Communication Disability Associated with Aphasia in the Courtroom

Many people in the aphasia community have heard about the case of a Massachusetts woman with aphasia who had to fight a battle to testify in a court case filed against a certified nursing assistant she had accused of assaulting her in her living facility. An earlier posting related to this case can be found at: “National Aphasia Association Update on the Case of Ruby McDonough”.

As stated in the earlier post: “The judge essentially ruled that because the basis for the earlier decision on competency had failed to recognize Ruby’s capacity to testify with accommodations, she had a right to take the stand at trial and utilize all reasonable accommodations to facilitate her communications as a witness against her assailant.”

Last week on March 10th the trial began and concluded the following day. Ms. McDonough was able to testify in the courtroom and pointed out the defendant as the man who had assaulted her. She was asked a number of questions by the attorneys from both sides. The trial was a bench trial which means that the judge and not a jury determined the outcome of the case. After listening to all of the cross-examination of witnesses and the arguments of both sides, the judge found the defendant not guilty.

I was at the trial and in this posting I would like to address some of the issues I see as important to accommodating those with aphasia in a courtroom. I was asked by Marian Ryan to assist in the case by conducting an evaluation of Ms. McDonough and I was also called as a witness to testify about the disability of aphasia itself.Before the trial began, attorneys from both sides asked me questions about aphasia and about what kinds of accommodations I thought might be useful in the case. Just as every case of aphasia is unique, so are the accommodations required unique to each. Unfortunately there is no simple way to provide an aphasia-translator in the courtroom. Some people will need assistance in expressing themselves in the courtroom, some will need assistance in understanding the language used in the courtroom and many PWA will need assistance with both. The first step therefore in each case must be a thorough assessment of the communication abilities of the PWA, so that person-specific accommodations can be determined.

In this case, it was argued to the judge that Ms. McDonough should not be required to answer open-ended questions such as “Where were you living?” but rather she should be given questions requiring only a “yes” or “no” answer.

For a PWA who has relatively intact auditory comprehension, this may be a good solution. However, what should be done for those who have significant problems understanding spoken language? In clinical practice we try to accommodate this disability by using multi-modality input (gesturing, pointing to pictures, writing down key words) to accompany our spoken words. Sometimes we also use extra verbal context to set up a topic, e.g. “Now I will ask you questions about your job? (pause). Did you work in an office?” However, in a courtroom, some of these accommodations may be considered to be “leading the witness” and may not be allowed. Furthermore, some questions just cannot easily be translated into other multi-modality means of expression, without in some way altering the content. This is a dilemma that does not have an easy solution.

Also in clinical practice, when we ask yes/no questions we often ask them in pairs and only when both are correctly answered are we certain that the PWA understood the questions. The reason for this is that people have a 50% chance of responding correctly to a single Yes or No question. In a courtroom should the accommodation allowing yes/no questions also require that they be presented in pairs?

Furthermore, should all of the attorneys have to equally abide by the same accommodations? In the trial last week, this is not what happened. The assistant district attorney used pictures and a series of yes/no questions in her questioning of Ms. McDonough. She stayed away from asking open-ended questions because she knew these would be difficult for her. She also allowed Ms. McDonough to use gestures to express herself.

But when the defense attorney questioned Ms. McDonough he did not use these accommodations and in fact asked her many open-ended questions. When he did ask her yes/no questions he often asked them in such a way as to lead her to give a “Yes” response, by nodding his head in the affirmative and ending his question with “…. yes?” This part of the trial succeeded only in demonstrating to all in the courtroom that, in fact, Ms. McDonough did have aphasia!

Since PWA may produce words in error, what we call paraphasias, it is also important that the court recognize that these errors are not intentionally produced to be misleading, nor should they be over interpreted as intended answers. This became an issue in the trial when earlier testimony was recounted that contained words Ms. McDonough had said in attempting to talk about the person she claimed had assaulted her. Because she was not able to say the name correctly, the defense attorney tried to make it seem she had named someone else. I felt it was likely she had merely made a paraphasic error in saying the name.

For a PWA, a much better way get this information across is to show a set of pictures and have her point to the picture of the person she meant to talk about, rather than requiring her to respond verbally, and, as happened in this case, using her own verbal response against her in subsequent testimony.

While the outcome of this trial was not as she would have hoped, Ms. McDonough was pleased to have the opportunity to present her testimony. There were many other individuals in court, including the judge, who hopefully learned something about aphasia that will benefit the next PWA in the courtroom. It will be a struggle, but one that is certainly worth it, to determine the exact accommodations and make them available in the courtroom for each person with aphasia.

Share this post via email, Facebook, Twitter by clicking on the icons below:
  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • email

This website uses IntenseDebate comments, but they are not currently loaded because either your browser doesn't support JavaScript, or they didn't load fast enough.

Reader Comments

gzxbobqibtjbdpsofs, jpfrggtjlh

Written By qaqvcoylim on November 30th, 1999 @ 12:00 am

gzxbobqibtjbdpsofs, jpfrggtjlh

Written By qaqvcoylim on November 30th, 1999 @ 12:00 am

Which i see your web page not to mention return all you could write-up there nevertheless by no means stated you will find as soon as i found this unique post, I really couldnt eliminate ourselves coming from leaving comments below. Great piece of writing sweetheart!

Written By Saints Jersey on November 30th, 1999 @ 12:00 am

I was stroke and of course, aphasia – husband VS me at divorce court. my best friends test for me. (THANK GOD.)

Written By MLB on March 16th, 2011 @ 5:39 pm

As an SLP that worked with a 37 year old stroke survivor with aphasia- who also had 2 sides of his family fighting over guardianship. Why do others (often educated persons) assume cognition is affected after a stroke? CONT

Written By Shannon Wilkinson on March 17th, 2011 @ 2:32 am

I was allowed to submit my recommendations/suggstions regarding his ability to answer simple questions (yes/no; choices given, few simple formulated answers) given time to process the question fully/asked for clarification if he did not understand, etc… in letter sent to his attorney. CONT

Written By Shannon Wilkinson on March 17th, 2011 @ 2:35 am

The only therapy provided to get him ready for this very important day was telling him EVERY DAY to ask for clarification if he was not TOTALLY sure what the question was before answering. I was so proud to see his smile and to hear how well he did representing himself and accurately expressing his own wishes.
Thanks to the judge who really understood and used a private meeting with this man and council.
When all decisions have been taken away, what a triumph this was. We would want someone to do the same for us. With the statistics proving that a person with a communication disorder are more than 70% more likely to be abused- do we still believe that criminals are stupid?

Written By Shannon Wilkinson on March 17th, 2011 @ 2:39 am

My son has expressive aphasia and has difficulty communicating except where real estate is concerned. But due to continuous repetition in The Real Estate World. He could sell houses. He couldn't do paperwork, contracts or finances but he could sell houses. He may not be able to hold a perfect conversation but he could sell houses. He also has difficulty reading, writing and understanding, See He was indicted on things he didn't do and was taken advantage of by two unscrupulous men. No one was allowed to see his medical records to see that he had severe difficulties answering and or understanding in court. He was told that he would be sent to a mental institution so he was fearful.They said the records couldn't be presented because he wasn't insane, incompacitated, or incompetent. He doesn't have mental illness, but he did have a brain damage by herpetic encephalitis. Even defendants can be victims with no recourse in the courtroom.

Written By vms32576 on May 14th, 2011 @ 5:16 am

I am not sure where you’re getting your information, but good topic. I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding more. Thanks for magnificent info I was looking for this information for my mission.

Written By fake aviator sunglasses on November 23rd, 2011 @ 1:40 pm

Magnificent goods from you, man. I’ve understand your stuff previous to and you are just too fantastic. I really like what you have acquired here, really like what you are saying and the way in which you say it. You make it entertaining and you still take care of to keep it sensible. I can not wait to read much more from you. This is actually a wonderful web site.

Written By bayaneskortlar on November 24th, 2011 @ 7:08 pm

What a lovely blog page. I’ll surely be back again. Please hold writing!

Written By cheap oakley on November 25th, 2011 @ 9:52 pm

Hello There. I found your blog using msn. This is an extremely well written article. I’ll make sure to bookmark it and return to read more of your useful information. Thanks for the post. I’ll definitely comeback.

Written By mustafa eraslan on November 26th, 2011 @ 7:28 pm

Hello, you have a great site. I’ll favorite it and return in the future. Thanks.

Written By Clyde Drehmer on November 30th, 2011 @ 8:18 pm

Hello, you have a cool web site. I’ll favorite it and come back in the future. Thank you!!

Written By Rich Hoenstine on November 30th, 2011 @ 9:44 pm

Wow, wonderful blog layout! How long have you been blogging for? you make blogging look easy. The overall look of your website is excellent, let alone the content!. Thanks For Your article about Accommodating the Communication Disability Associated with Aphasia in the Courtroom « Aphasia Corner Blog .

Written By Norberto Shawgo on November 27th, 2013 @ 6:20 am

Thank you for sharing excellent informations. Your web site is very cool. I’m impressed by the details that you¡¦ve on this website. It reveals how nicely you understand this subject. Bookmarked this web page, will come back for more articles. You, my pal, ROCK! I found just the info I already searched all over the place and just could not come across. What an ideal website.

Written By doudoune moncler pas cher on November 28th, 2013 @ 5:53 am

hey there and thank you for your details – I have definitely picked up something new from suitable here. I did nonetheless expertise a couple of technical issues utilizing this internet site, as I experienced to reload the webpage lots of times previous to I could get it to load appropriately. I had been questioning if your net host is OK? Not that I’m complaining, but slow loading instances times will occasionally affect your placement in google and could damage your top quality score if marketing and marketing with Adwords. Properly I’m adding this RSS to my e-mail and may look out for significantly much more of your respective fascinating content material. Guarantee that you simply update this once more soon..

Written By on November 28th, 2013 @ 9:47 am

Nice post i loved it

Written By Bernie Louviere on November 28th, 2013 @ 10:51 am

Thanks for tis helpful post

Written By Jodie Currington on November 28th, 2013 @ 10:51 am

It’s hard to come by well-informed people for this topic, but you seem like you know what you’re talking about! Thanks

Written By click here on December 1st, 2013 @ 2:37 pm

BlogLovin – Why it is the wrong link?

Written By Viagra on December 13th, 2013 @ 5:24 pm

hi!,I like your writing very much! proportion we keep up a correspondence extra approximately your post on AOL? I need an expert on this space to solve my problem. Maybe that’s you! Taking a look ahead to look you.

UGG 小物アグ-小物-jap...

Written By UGG 小物 on December 17th, 2013 @ 2:31 am

Fooling around with narcotics might get you addicted, then you become a slave.. . For a long time promethazine added to narcotics by drug abusers. It might prolong the effects of the narcotic, but it also cuts down on nausea.. . Hydrocodone pills usually have acetaminophen as an added ingredient, so many people who abuse these hydrocodone/acetaminophen combination products end up with fatal liver injury. . . Acetaminophen (found also in Tylenol) has part of each dose turned into a liver toxic chemical (NAPQI). The liver makes and stores an antidote to NAPQI like poisons, but this antidote (glutathione) gets depleted with continous dosing.

Written By Viagra on December 22nd, 2013 @ 3:53 am

i love? codeine

Written By viagra on December 25th, 2013 @ 1:00 am

I have been taking acomplia for a few days how long does it take to see results?

Written By Cialis on December 27th, 2013 @ 7:49 am

Myspace question, How can anyone view my blogs with my profile on private?

Written By Viagra on December 30th, 2013 @ 3:45 am

I’ve regrown all my hair and its really thick now and using rogaine is a pain in the *** and expensive. Since I am using propecia too, will i lose the hair i’ve gained from rogaine?.

Written By Viagra on January 9th, 2014 @ 12:11 pm

I did the same thing for a few years. My cardio Dr. said its not good for your heart. To speed it up and slow it down it is bad for your heart.But it sure does get ya going when you need to go and lets ya sleep good when ya want to sleep. Almost need to do it these days. But yes its bad for your heart.

Written By Viagra on January 11th, 2014 @ 7:08 pm

I would like to move my myspace blog to another blogging website, like wordpress or to a mac mobile me website that i design. How can I do that without losing what I have already created? If it is not possible I will just keep using myspace for blogging purposes only…but i would like to move it so i can close the account. Thanks for any help you can provide..

Written By Viagra on January 13th, 2014 @ 10:10 am

ambien? orgy!

Written By Viagra on January 15th, 2014 @ 11:03 am

Hair Loss trying a med called Propecia does this work or no?

Written By Viagra on January 15th, 2014 @ 1:22 pm

what is the difference between ClarocetNRI and Klonopin?

Written By Viagra on January 23rd, 2014 @ 5:52 am

How hard is it to get a prescription for Oxycontin?

Written By Viagra on January 26th, 2014 @ 7:25 pm

What is the difference in effect between hydrocodone and oxycodone?

Written By Viagra on January 27th, 2014 @ 5:00 am

Will Celexa and Clonazepam be detected in a Life Insurance Medical Test?

Written By Viagra on January 27th, 2014 @ 10:27 pm

I was perscribed codeine a while back for something, but I saved them for when I was bored instead of for the pain. I was just curious how many pills would make me sufficiently high?. So are there any helpful or informative answers. If you think I’m stupid at least be kind enough to support why you think so…instead of leaving comments like -stupid or moron…. . enlighten me if you think I’m an idiot. Don’t talk shit. Haven’t you ever heard of constructive criticism?.

Written By Viagra on January 30th, 2014 @ 3:18 pm

Some of my college friends were talking about Adderall the study drug recently (not that I use it myself), but I did some research and to my surprise I found out that it’s a legal drug. What is it specifically prescribed for?.

Written By Viagra on February 1st, 2014 @ 11:13 pm

i think this is a very helpful and informing video. i think you should change your video title, though. i clicked on this video expecting to hear a horrible experience about propecia but still? a good vid :)

Written By Viagra on February 5th, 2014 @ 7:27 am

Percocet is a mixture of oxycodone and acetaminophen. Tylenol in it’s basic form (i.e. Tylenol and not Tylenol PM, migraine, allergy, etc.) is just acetaminophen with some binders and inactive ingredients. Acetaminophen is added to the pain killer oxycodone because it can increase the effectiveness of the opiate. . . The general risk is that an overdose of acetaminophen can damage your liver. Since the percocet already has enough in it, taking tylenol or some other over the counter analgesics (pain killers) isn’t worth the risk of liver damage. . . Quick summary, taking Tylenol won’t do anything for you since the percocet already contains the ingredient of Tylenol.

Written By Viagra on February 6th, 2014 @ 1:46 am

I’ve createt a new kind of art named Gubbe. In swedish it means old man o little man. I wanna know what ppl think about it. but I don’t know where to find interested ppl; so I decided to get help here. Can you please go and check my art and tell me what you think? They may look childinsh; but think about it’s name and you’ll find it’s deep meaning. Thank you. . If the page wasn’t loaded completely, please refresh the page..

Written By Viagra on February 6th, 2014 @ 10:32 am

Oh iye ke fitnah?? Egkau kata ini semua konspirasi dr Umno,? egkau ada bukti?? Egkau sdiri pun dah buat fitnah… Yg dlm video tu siapa?? Klau bukan Anwar maknanya hantu Anwar la??

Written By Viagra on February 6th, 2014 @ 8:35 pm

Your questions are being taken down for violating the terms in answers! Asking for page hits, subscribers, votes, views, followers etc are ALL violations. I suggest you read the rules or don’t post!

Written By Viagra on February 7th, 2014 @ 12:51 pm

Does hydrocodone affect a males ejaculation?

Written By Cialis on February 8th, 2014 @ 7:08 am

nao tenho acesso ao design e? meu blog no topo . podes me ajudar obrigado

Written By Viagra on February 9th, 2014 @ 2:20 am

How many apo lorazepam does it take to kill you?.

Written By Viagra on February 9th, 2014 @ 6:26 pm

Is there a way to make an individualized talk radio station?

Written By Viagra on February 14th, 2014 @ 10:39 pm

You can’t get “the real stuff” anywhere. It’s been withdrawn from the market because of serious side effects,. .

Written By Viagra on February 16th, 2014 @ 5:15 pm

What would happen if you overdosed on Klonopin?.

Written By Viagra on February 16th, 2014 @ 11:38 pm

I have been taking hydrocodone for two years (yes I have a perscription, and it is needed). I have been recently been having problems during sex. I can keep an erection but there is no finished product. Could it be affecting me now?.

Written By Viagra on February 17th, 2014 @ 3:17 am

Grazie a te Paola , brava e gentilissima ! :) Un abbraccio !. I BLOGGER

Written By Viagra on February 17th, 2014 @ 4:11 am

Vean? mi serie de? mini-narcos suscribance apenes comenze!!!

Written By Viagra on February 17th, 2014 @ 6:07 am

These two must be doctors— well? versed in neurobehavioural disorders.. . And the part where he said that he drank in college but did not use Adderall was hilarious. Considering alcohol is literally worse for you in EVERY WAY.

Written By Viagra on February 18th, 2014 @ 1:46 am

I’m planning on going to the Florida Keys soon and I was hoping there was some kind of iPod or Sony Bloggie touch case that will allow me to take pictures and video with it. I’ve searched around on the net but I’m not yielding the kind of results I was hoping to find..

Written By Viagra on February 20th, 2014 @ 5:03 am

At college adderall is A LOT more? expensive, because of the demand

Written By Viagra on February 21st, 2014 @ 9:48 am

Diazepam is a psychotropic drug, name suits? that music.

Written By Viagra on February 21st, 2014 @ 2:48 pm

This trailer was alright, but hold off until you can see the whole movie. If you’d like to watch the entire thing – and several top rated hit movies – look at the website below. It will be possible to securely watch anything and everything straight? to your screen..­­m

Written By Viagra on February 24th, 2014 @ 8:03 am

Great! Amazing to? see how fast that worked for you. Lexapro takes a long time to really start taking effect.

Written By Viagra on February 24th, 2014 @ 8:05 pm

Just casually fighting a dragon while? talking to Meridia.

Written By Viagra on February 26th, 2014 @ 7:38 pm

Some people and websites have biased statistics, that support whatever their company or website caters to. What are some websites that provide legitimate statistics on a wide variety of things, besides the U.S. Census Bureau website?.

Written By Viagra on March 5th, 2014 @ 8:11 pm

They definitely could be detected. If not, they would be in your medical records. That’s why it’s best not to lie on a life insurance application. If you lie and get a policy but die within the contestability period, you might not have as much life insurance as you thought. . . Just work with a knowledgable life insurance agent (or agents) and tell them the truth up front, so they can help you find the best company for you. It’s really easy.

Written By Viagra on March 14th, 2014 @ 3:03 pm

What kind of job could I get?

Written By cialis on March 19th, 2014 @ 11:52 pm

What are the side affects of the prescription drug soma along with oxycontin ?

Written By Viagra on March 20th, 2014 @ 9:03 am

Skelaxin is in the same class but they have different mechanisms of action. . . Soma works by actually causing skeletal muscle relaxation. Skelaxin works by causing sedation which in turn causes you to rest, and resting causes muscle relaxation. However, I ask you this? If Skelaxin promotes that it is the LEAST sedating of all muscle relaxers, wouldn’t that mean it is the least effective ? :) I posed that question to my drug rep when she came in and she was speechless, had no answer. I guess health care providers aren’t supposed to think in that regard.

Written By cialis on March 21st, 2014 @ 9:26 am

The doctor wouldn’t have prescribed them if they weren’t safe, however people react to it differently. I won’t take them again because of the side effects I had. I had really bad migraines and was sick the next day. People who have taken this drug have also had episodes of sleep walking and haven’t remembered them. I woke up once in the kitchen (not knowing how I got there) and was eating. Kinda funny I know, but I could have easily grabbed my keys and tried to drive somewhere and then caused an accident.. . Just because there are side effects though doesn’t mean that everyone will have them. I just decided I felt safer not taking them.. . Good luck and I hope they work.

Written By viagra on March 23rd, 2014 @ 11:20 pm

I take propecia for hair loss. Will this work because I am on kidney dialysis or will it get washed away?

Written By Viagra on March 30th, 2014 @ 7:51 pm

Key people and executives for Memorex Products, Inc.. . VP, Americas Retail Consumer Division Ronald D. (Ron) Zinke . VP, Marketing and Product Development Allen H. Gharapetian

Written By Viagra on March 31st, 2014 @ 7:19 am

Its simple. . Settings >> Permissions and select “Only people I choose”

Written By Viagra on March 31st, 2014 @ 9:32 pm

Sir. if you? dont mind. can i ask a favor. where i get that software, so that i can design a templates for blogger. thanks a lot for your best vid.

Written By Viagra on April 1st, 2014 @ 6:07 am

I’m not very good with Latin, so I don’t know if it would be simply “Pax Meridia”, or perhaps “Pax Meridiana”..

Written By Viagra on April 2nd, 2014 @ 7:32 am

Sorry to break the news; but, Google Search already does this–and you can limit it to news and forums too.

Written By Viagra on April 2nd, 2014 @ 1:02 pm

What are your opinions on staying on Lexapro during pregnancy?

Written By Viagra on April 3rd, 2014 @ 11:49 pm

blogs are online diaries or journals. . blog stands for ‘web log’

Written By Viagra on April 4th, 2014 @ 9:39 am

I’m on accutane also, and the best I’ve found is Eucerin calming cream lotion. It soaks in fast and won’t leave your face greasy looking. I’ve been using it for the past three months and my face hasn’t been very dry/red/irritating/burning/etc since. Putting the water on your face throughout the day is probably making your face drier. Good luck!

Written By viagra on April 4th, 2014 @ 11:52 am

How does having multiple blogs on tumblr work?

Written By viagra on April 4th, 2014 @ 6:24 pm

how hard is it to learn php?

Written By Viagra on April 5th, 2014 @ 4:55 am

What should you do or not do when you have the side effects of using Lorazepam, or Activan?

Written By viagra on April 5th, 2014 @ 7:21 am

I was wondering if you have adsense on your blog, do you still get “earnings” when people visit your blog through bloglovin? Thank you! . . my blog btw is:

Written By viagra on April 5th, 2014 @ 9:45 am


Written By Viagra on April 5th, 2014 @ 11:44 am

I need to get a print out of my monthly dialed and received calls, does Boost Mobile provide that?.

Written By viagra on April 5th, 2014 @ 4:09 pm

if ambien gets taken off of the market i will find you and punch the fuck out of your ass.? its people like you that give drugs a bad name

Written By Viagra on April 5th, 2014 @ 5:21 pm

Is a bloger like a booger?

Written By Viagra on April 5th, 2014 @ 11:03 pm

What are the best places to advertise online when I want to reach starting entrepreneurs?

Written By Viagra on April 6th, 2014 @ 2:49 am

What over the counter drugs contain codeine? I am aware that codeine by itself but it is still prescribed by doctors with aspirin or tylenol. Are there any places like Walgreens that sell a product that contains codeine?.

Written By cialis on April 6th, 2014 @ 7:01 am

For those who are physically dependent on? ambien, trying to go off, take my word for it and see if you can get some valium or klonopin, take it, taper off the ambien in about a week and then the valium/klonopin in about a week and a half. SEVERELY reduces the withdrawal’s worst part.

Written By viagra on April 7th, 2014 @ 3:25 am

Lipitor caused high liver function results, I stopped taking three months ago and test results are coming down, but not yet normal..

Written By viagra on April 7th, 2014 @ 3:46 am

I’ve been looking at getting a cell phone, and I’ve been thinking about getting boost mobile. However, I’ve heard less than pleasant things about their texting service. I was wondering if texting with them is really that bad?.

Written By Viagra on April 7th, 2014 @ 4:54 am

I accidently took a zolpidem in the morning before I went to work. Would I be ok?.

Written By Viagra on April 7th, 2014 @ 11:01 am

What is a good diet pill to work on stubborn areas?

Written By Viagra on April 7th, 2014 @ 12:28 pm

Hey guy if you want to watch full streaming movie’s just visit here!!. Just search in Google type this: Philviews Watch? FULL Movies for Free

Written By Viagra on April 7th, 2014 @ 2:12 pm

@metallicmentality What do you mean that you extract pure codeine from hydrocodone??? What on earth are you? talking about??

Written By viagra on April 7th, 2014 @ 5:34 pm

Ativan is a safe benzo..

Written By viagra on April 7th, 2014 @ 5:49 pm

I think that Valium comes in suppositories, or if not, the pharmacist can easily make them for you.. . We used Valium/diazepam suppositories for small children susceptible to febrile seizures.The theory was to raise the seizure threshold quickly.

Written By Viagra on April 7th, 2014 @ 6:46 pm

Kahkahkahkahkah…aku ingat? anwar betul….

Written By Viagra on April 7th, 2014 @ 7:37 pm

Klonopin sucks

Written By Viagra on April 7th, 2014 @ 8:14 pm

How long does Diazepam take before it kicks in?

Written By Viagra on April 7th, 2014 @ 9:26 pm

I know Klonopin is for anxiety, but can it also make you feel down and depressed?.

Written By Viagra on April 8th, 2014 @ 1:38 am

How do you get people to visit your blog and good blogging sites?

Written By Viagra on April 8th, 2014 @ 5:05 am

What effects would taking street drugs while on Lexapro do?

Written By viagra on April 8th, 2014 @ 8:22 am

nice tips, Cool templates? over here:

Written By cialis on April 8th, 2014 @ 10:28 am

I love reading personal blogs, Mommy blogs, etc. . . What is the best way to find these types of blogs online? The best method I have is just following favorites people have – going to one bloggers “favorites” then the next bloggers favorites, and so forth.. . I’ve tried Google Blogsearch but all that gives me is old news articles, etc. Nothing personal at all.. . How do you search for personal blogs?.

Written By Viagra on April 8th, 2014 @ 11:28 am

What can I take to replace my lorazepam?

Written By Viagra on April 9th, 2014 @ 12:40 am

Thanks for the link to the update, my bloggie focus was absolute? crap. Can’t wait to test it.

Written By Viagra on April 9th, 2014 @ 2:24 am

How do you look at blogs you’ve “liked” on bloglovin’?

Written By Viagra on April 9th, 2014 @ 11:50 am

Hi there, have you heard about – MonEYEopener – or something similar (search on Google for it)? On this website you will see helpful facts about the best way to make easy money on the internet just by answering simple and easy questionnaires. This helped? Gary to work from the comfort of home and consequently experience economical freedom very quickly. Perhaps it will work for you also…

Written By viagra on April 9th, 2014 @ 12:48 pm

How long after drinking can I take ativan?

Written By viagra on April 9th, 2014 @ 6:05 pm

I would question as to why Ativan for anxiety. There are separate drugs for antidepressants and or anxiety. I would talk to your Dr. before making any changes.

Written By Viagra on April 10th, 2014 @ 2:07 am

How can I make my comments appear on blogger?

Written By viagra on April 10th, 2014 @ 12:00 pm

Drug Test result will show it up as Opiates. Not all tests would find it, it will depend on the cut-off the drug test they do but still you would show as positive. And unless you have prescription for it, it can be a problem.

Written By Viagra on April 10th, 2014 @ 3:35 pm

Check out my blog at jessicaflachner.wordpress . com/. I’d really appreciate? your feedback? on my posts!. Thanks!

Written By Viagra on April 10th, 2014 @ 5:17 pm

love it ? bitch get my valium

Written By Viagra on April 10th, 2014 @ 7:01 pm

Can you still earn money from adsense through Bloglovin?

Written By Buy Cialis on April 11th, 2014 @ 5:18 am

I recently created a cooking blog. I will be adding recipes and other stuff on a regular basis. Do anyone of you have a cooking blog and would like to share your experiences on building readership?. . A link to my blog is included on my profile page.. . Cheers. spoon-and-chopsticks (dot) blogspot (dot) com.

Written By viagra on April 11th, 2014 @ 2:36 pm

What are some of the best blog sites to use?

Written By viagra on April 11th, 2014 @ 8:52 pm

desoxyns wayyyy? better than adderall

Written By viagra on April 11th, 2014 @ 9:38 pm

My husband was on Lipitor for a couple years and he had cramping and muscle spasms from the drug. It is listed as a precaution to the medicine.

Written By Viagra on April 12th, 2014 @ 1:55 am

how long is prescription for alprazolam good for?

Written By Viagra on April 12th, 2014 @ 6:17 pm

If I eat healthy and do blogilates every day will it help me lose weight and get toned?.

Written By Viagra on April 13th, 2014 @ 12:26 am

I am an aspiring advice columnist. I am starting a small one for myself using my own personal blog. But I am having trouble with the promoting part of it. Any help would be appreciated..

Written By Viagra on April 13th, 2014 @ 6:12 am

No, I do not blog or journal, but I disagree with your friend’s idea that personal feelings shouldn’t be expressed. The whole point of a blog or a journal is to express your personal opinion and your feelings to others who will listen and be affected by them. Your feelings involve everything – otherwise you would just be listing off things you have done or seen, and not why they were meaningful. . . Face to face expression of feelings is sometimes better – since you can’t see the other person’s actions through written communication, it’s harder to know what they actually think by looking at their body language. Written communication is much easier to do although, and you’re able to think about what you want to say and how to say it in a (in my case) non-offensive way.

Written By Viagra on April 14th, 2014 @ 10:54 am

dude ur? making ambien look bad………….

Written By Viagra on April 14th, 2014 @ 3:20 pm

Possibly because it was a word invented by the author and thus novel. Possibly quite simply to give it added emphasis ( the usual reason for using italics). A frightening book isn’t it ?

Written By Viagra on April 14th, 2014 @ 8:48 pm

How much blog traffic will affect to my blog if I convert my blog name with different domain name?

Written By Viagra on April 14th, 2014 @ 10:45 pm

gov. & bro.anwar no ngam mah !! hehehe

Written By Viagra on April 15th, 2014 @ 6:13 am

It doesn’t work. there are no magic pills to lose weight just old fashioned had work and eating the right foods. Don’t waist your time or money when your going to end up having to start over again eating right and exercising.

Written By Buy Cialis on April 16th, 2014 @ 2:21 pm

I’m doing a research paper where I have to convince my company that blogging can be beneficial to it.I have to decide a real-life company to “work” for. Which company do you think can actually do good from corporate blogging?.

Written By Viagra on April 16th, 2014 @ 3:44 pm

How to administer Oxycontin if the patient have difficulty swallowing?

Written By cialis on April 16th, 2014 @ 8:02 pm

I have a blog on blogger and I want to put an outside banner on my blog but I do not know how to do it, when I choose add the html gadget it does not work, please help..

Written By viagra on April 17th, 2014 @ 10:29 am

Why would hydrocodone being Schedule III? result in higher prescription rates compared to Schedule II drugs?

Written By Viagra on April 17th, 2014 @ 8:57 pm

I see a lot of websites offering incredible deals for generic Propecia. Does anyone have any experience ordering this stuff? Are they all scams? Any info would be greatly appreciated. Thanks..

Written By Viagra on April 18th, 2014 @ 3:52 am

The use of MERIDIA in combination with other CNS-active drugs, particularly serotonergic agents, has not been systematically evaluated. Consequently, caution is advised if the concomitant administration of MERIDIA with other centrally-acting drugs is indicated . . well bupropion is not a seratonergic drug but. it has been shown to indirectly enhance the firing of serotonergic neurons, via activation of downstream norepinephrine flow. . . well seems confusing..ask ur doc……

Written By cialis on April 18th, 2014 @ 4:14 am

What is the best way to override the effects of Percocet?

Written By viagra on April 18th, 2014 @ 11:43 am

What kind of things could get you prescribed Valium in Canada?

Written By Viagra on April 18th, 2014 @ 11:41 pm

Just saw several? FOX NEWS REPORTS on the PERMANENT SIDE-EFFECTS on Propecia !!!

Written By Viagra on April 19th, 2014 @ 7:30 am

How long do I have to charge a Sony bloggie touch and no when its fully charged?

Written By viagra on April 19th, 2014 @ 6:13 pm

should I try to come off Klonopin and Epilim and try taking Valium just when I know i’m going into an unfamiliar situation to make me less paranoid and anxious about my dystonia, so I won’t be taking it every day as I don’t get into unfamiliar situations everyday, so i’m wondering if that would be a better choice for me… And plus the effects on the meds i’m on are knocking me for six, i’m a mum? and finding it hard to cope being constantly doped! I don’t want to miss out on them growing up :(

Written By Viagra on April 19th, 2014 @ 7:48 pm

Whats the difference between oxycodone and hydrocodone? And will it show up different on a drug test?.

Written By Viagra on April 19th, 2014 @ 10:04 pm

Read ‘Blogging for Dummies’ – your library should have a copy.

Written By Viagra on April 20th, 2014 @ 3:58 am

This is great news for me. Because I want to share my views in a free and organized way. In – it is going to be about the power of allowing the wills of God to happen on you. Then honor him and thank him; for his wills on us is a limitless grace. Welcome dear friends to my weblog. A lot? of unique informations about this topic will be available in the days to come. My heart is already smiling. Amen.

Written By Viagra on April 20th, 2014 @ 6:37 am


Written By Viagra on April 20th, 2014 @ 8:58 am

What companies do you think can benefit from blogging?

Written By viagra on April 20th, 2014 @ 8:05 pm

On Monday I got into a snowboarding accident and fractured two of my teeth and earlier today I had surgery to remove both teeth followed by bone grafts for implants in a few months. I was prescribed Hydrocodone for the pain but I’ve read it has addictive properties so I’m afraid to take it. Is it as addictive as people say it is? I’ve never taken it before so I don’t know much about it..

Written By Viagra on April 21st, 2014 @ 8:06 am

what is the difference in percocet and darvocet ?

Written By viagra on April 21st, 2014 @ 11:06 am

what shoot and share camera is good for concerts?

Written By Viagra on April 22nd, 2014 @ 11:27 pm

Can anyone give me a list of good Blog sites?

Written By viagra on April 25th, 2014 @ 4:11 am

How many times a week can i take ativan or klonopin without getting physically addicted?

Written By cialis on April 25th, 2014 @ 5:01 am

this is quite interesting. I have never heard of such, however, finasteride is used for those with enlarged prostate.

Written By cialis on April 25th, 2014 @ 10:00 am

I know that with nextel, you can connect with walkie talkie with someone in Mexico but i want to know if with boost mobile you can do the same thing. Please let me know thanks..

Written By viagra on April 25th, 2014 @ 2:44 pm

is there any more discounted websites? where can i find them? like? search wise. . what about this one? what about magic makeup? i dont know whether it is genuine tbh thats the issue

Written By cialis on April 26th, 2014 @ 8:42 am

I wouldn’t want too. The dosage may be incorrect.

Written By cialis on April 26th, 2014 @ 2:47 pm

jajajajajajaj clonazepam tastes like mint, alprazolam tastes bad, lexapro tastes bad but? I like it, lorazepam tastes almost nothing…. doctor of mind is wise! hes knows

Written By cialis on April 26th, 2014 @ 3:15 pm

Theoretically no, you should be able to keep most or all of your new hair. Rogaine doesn’t do anything to stop hair loss…it just promotes new hair growth. Propecia is the medication that stops hair loss (by inhibiting the formation of DHT on your scalp) so if you keep on planning to use that you should be good.. . I’d probably stop using Rogaine for a month or so and track your progress, however, just to make sure you’re happy with the results before I throw it away completely.

Written By cialis on April 26th, 2014 @ 8:39 pm

Actually my blog name is not relevant to my blog this time i want to convert my blog to a website through blogger. but i dont know if i will do it ,then how much will affect my blog traffic?.

Written By cialis on April 26th, 2014 @ 8:59 pm

How are Thompson Gazelles/ gazelles in general, adapted to their environment?

Written By viagra on April 26th, 2014 @ 10:06 pm

yea clonazepam? is a real thang

Written By cialis on April 27th, 2014 @ 12:06 am

I just got prescribed Lexapro and was wondering how long it would take for the side effects to start (that is, if I’m going to have any. I know some people don’t…).. . Thanks..

Written By ambien on April 27th, 2014 @ 4:46 pm

I’d prefer something short,specific, and memorable..

Written By viagra on April 28th, 2014 @ 3:11 am

“Vicodins” He is sooOOOooo stupid.

Written By cialis on April 28th, 2014 @ 10:07 am

Is it possible to start a personal blog with little or no money?

Written By cialis on April 28th, 2014 @ 10:52 am

hey bruhh here a good? link .. it wont let me put a link so please go to and u can watch almost any new movie but just type man of steel in the search bar .. hope u enjoy

Written By viagra on April 28th, 2014 @ 7:44 pm

I took some hydrocodone a week ago for a bad headach and I have a urine test coming up soon, will I pass? And please do not give me any BS answers because thats all I’ve seen so far..

Written By viagra on April 28th, 2014 @ 9:22 pm

I have two tumblr blogs in the same email account. What will happen if i delete the first one?

Written By cialis on April 28th, 2014 @ 10:09 pm

I dont think it is. check with your docter to see the side effects with both medicines

Written By viagra on April 29th, 2014 @ 12:08 am

weird !! i found meridia’s beacon on a wrecked ship The Brinehammer wasn’t even looking for it . only thing i had to kill was a few crabs ….? disappointing !! good video .

Written By viagra on April 29th, 2014 @ 8:12 am

Do you want to blog just for the sake of writing or do you want to make money out of blogging?

Written By viagra on April 29th, 2014 @ 3:32 pm

Do they purposely do that just to stop people from abusing the codeine? Do they not realize how horrible that is for organs like your liver?. When I say they I mean the pharmaceutical companies..

Written By cialis on April 29th, 2014 @ 4:43 pm

I want a nice phone. Does anyone know which phones can be unlocked for boost mobile?.

Written By viagra on April 30th, 2014 @ 8:00 am

Where can I find the code for a text/image scroll like on the homepage of

Written By cialis on April 30th, 2014 @ 12:42 pm

What are the differences in dosage between Ritalin and Adderall?

Written By viagra on April 30th, 2014 @ 4:58 pm

I would like to add a label cloud to my blog with keywords organized by popularity. What I am looking for is some code I can cut and past into my current template to give me a label cloud. I would prefer not to have to redo my whole template, which would take hours if not days. (Note: I spent a lot of time trying to get the new Blogger template editor to get the look and functionality I needed and ended up reverting to the old style template after hours of frustration).

Written By viagra on May 1st, 2014 @ 2:20 pm

I am on lithium and Klonopin, How long do I have to be weened off Klonopin before conception?

Written By viagra on May 2nd, 2014 @ 5:28 am

Yes you really can become euphoric with ativan. It makes me feel high but withdrawal is hell!.

Written By cialis on May 2nd, 2014 @ 10:10 am

Pinche joto les sigue lacorrient nomas el vato nomas la pura voz del vato donde dise ua estuvo s le olle como que no cree lo que pasa

Written By viagra on May 2nd, 2014 @ 6:12 pm

I have been exploring for a little for any high quality articles or blog posts in this kind of area . Exploring in Yahoo I ultimately stumbled upon this web site. Reading this information So i¡¦m glad to show that I have an incredibly good uncanny feeling I came upon exactly what I needed. I such a lot indubitably will make certain to don¡¦t forget this web site and give it a look a relentless basis.

Written By viagra on May 3rd, 2014 @ 12:59 am

Need help with a title for my fanfiction?

Written By viagra on May 4th, 2014 @ 9:08 am

Join music forums and post a link to your blog each time you make a comment. . Join twitter – follow people with similar interests; include a link to your blog in your profile or each time you send a message. . Listen to music or media -related podcasts – comment,say how wonderful the podcast is, the host is etc and point people to your blog and you may get a mention if you’re lucky.. . Comment on other blogspot blogs – link to your blog

Written By ambien on May 5th, 2014 @ 3:40 pm

How often would you need to take percocet in order to become addicted?

Written By viagra on May 5th, 2014 @ 4:36 pm

Build a blog site, and subscribe for: .

Written By viagra on May 5th, 2014 @ 11:04 pm

what happens if you take ambien and vicadon at the same time without a prescription?

Written By viagra on May 6th, 2014 @ 2:06 am

Suggestion..since this is the Horse Racing category, your best bet would be to post your question under your listed primary sports of interest.. soccer, hockey, basketball and tennis.. you’ll get better results there.. :)

Written By viagra on May 6th, 2014 @ 2:07 am

what are some other sleeping aides that givethe drunken like effect of ambien?

Written By viagra on May 6th, 2014 @ 5:38 am

Fast heart rate, especially with history of high blood pressure, can be a sign of heart attack. Especially if this is a new symptom for you, it needs to be checked out. Go see your doc, urgent care center, or ER for an EKG and blood work. Don’t confuse the situation by taking Ambien now. Ambien helps you sleep, if you are having a heart attack, maybe you go to sleep and never wake up… It might be just anxiety or some other non-serious condition, but even so, Ambien is definitely not the treatment of choice.

Written By viagra on May 6th, 2014 @ 6:05 am

Does anyone know what font face is used for the blogilates logo? Or is it a design that was uniquely made for it?.

Written By viagra on May 6th, 2014 @ 9:53 am

Soma was not an illegal substance in the book. Only books and art were outlawed (and calling them ‘illegal substances’ requires some bending of? the signification of ‘substance’ in this context).

Written By viagra on May 6th, 2014 @ 7:51 pm

Whats the difference between Lexapro and Citalopram?

Written By viagra on May 6th, 2014 @ 11:28 pm

I unchecked the box labeled “Show my blog on search engines” but yet, when I type my blog on google it’s the first thing that comes up. I’ve had my settings like this for over a year now! How can I hide my tumblr from google?.

Written By viagra on May 7th, 2014 @ 12:27 am

I know after a while your body can get immune or whatever to it so how long until it stops working? Ive gone through phases where Id get depressed a lot again and I can affect the depression by increasing the dose for a while then going back down again. But im wondering if i will ever become fully immune to lexapro and have to change medications to stop my depression?.

Written By viagra on May 7th, 2014 @ 12:49 am

How to make my Adderall comedown better?

Written By ambien on May 7th, 2014 @ 6:24 am

What is a good radio broadcast website?

Written By viagra on May 7th, 2014 @ 10:39 am

blue mapping. blue bloger , atlas blues

Written By viagra on May 7th, 2014 @ 1:28 pm

Changing a lawnmower motor to run on steam?

Written By viagra on May 7th, 2014 @ 1:53 pm

What will happen if I mix Vicodin with these two prescriptions?

Written By viagra on May 7th, 2014 @ 2:28 pm

I would like to be a bloger/director but i don’t have any ideas HELP…would a video phone be ok my phone has really good quality….

Written By viagra on May 8th, 2014 @ 7:09 am

I just want to start eating healthy. I want to eat the right foods and stop my junk food madness!.

Written By viagra on May 8th, 2014 @ 7:47 am

Where can you get the sleeping medication Ambien without a prescription?

Written By viagra on May 8th, 2014 @ 1:40 pm

Well, penicillin won’t make you tired, but percocet certainly can!. . (yeah it’s normal)

Written By viagra on May 9th, 2014 @ 11:24 am

en los Estados Unidos sףlo tiene traficantes di drogas y prostitutas mexicanas, pueblo muy feo, horrible perecem indios, ladrones y perra mexicana, ningתn estudio tiene? un poco de cultura, image di tu Paםs muy fea en todo el mundo, Dios mi libre, en el mundo todo habla muy mal di tu Paםs di tu pueblo, los americanos odeam los indios mexican, muy feo la imagene di tu Paםs mi amigo, Dios me libre, Mexico el Cancer dela Tierra, MEXICANCER CANCER CANCER ALIENS INVASION MEXICANCER IMMIGRANT

Written By viagra on May 9th, 2014 @ 2:09 pm

What are the best scary suspense movies on Netflix streaming?

Written By viagra on May 9th, 2014 @ 2:10 pm

We are out of town and my husband forgot his medication. He takes Norco and Soma.Trying to find some way to get him relief. He had two back surgeries and a hip replacement so he really needs the pain and muscle relaxing effect..

Written By viagra on May 9th, 2014 @ 5:35 pm

Why is it dangerous to take percocet and tylenol together?

Written By viagra on May 11th, 2014 @ 6:38 pm

methadone is a great drug if your going to use it for? the right reasons… saved my life if many ways but its always hard to not try and find some clonazepam, benzos etc. because of the unique high it brings when combined with methadone but also if very dangerous for some who are not experienced you take them together and lots of ppl just go to sleep and don’t wake up

Written By viagra on May 11th, 2014 @ 10:40 pm

What is the best way to help me stay calm while flying? I’ve never been on a plane and i’m terrified!?

Written By viagra on May 12th, 2014 @ 10:32 pm

Why is it such a big deal if I swallow or chew it as opposed to letting it dissolve? . . How does Ativan differ from Clonazepam. . . If I have gained a tolerance for Clonazepam, would I also have a tolerance for Ativan?. . Ativan = Lorazepam..

Written By viagra on May 13th, 2014 @ 3:10 pm

What are some good blogging websites to blog about ur life?

Written By viagra on May 17th, 2014 @ 2:03 am

What is adderall?

Written By viagra on May 27th, 2014 @ 9:42 pm

Through Blogger, i have a blog using Blogspot. I would likie to know how to export all my posts from Blogspot to my newly created Weebly blog..

Written By cialis on May 27th, 2014 @ 9:46 pm

Hello, I log on to your blog daily. Your story-telling style is witty, keep it up!

Written By el paso land for sale on June 21st, 2014 @ 9:04 am

Hi there, just changed into aware of your blog thru Google, and located that it’s truly informative. I am going to watch out for brussels. I’ll be grateful should you proceed this in future. Numerous folks can be benefited from your writing

Written By Robt Drayton on July 7th, 2014 @ 2:30 am

I have internet download manager and it allows me to download music played on websites. However, this time it did not help.. ok, here’s the link: I need to download it. Please help. Thanks in advance..

Written By Ambien on July 10th, 2014 @ 1:03 pm

Properly, I went to a department store, plus they were sold out So, I decided to head to a unique store, and turns out, they had them! In the actually adorable Deep Atlantic coloration. I made a decision to have them. The initial day I carry wow gold, I received Numerous compliments! And, it truly is just perfect, for the reason that NO A single HAS THEM! :)

Written By wow gold on July 13th, 2014 @ 6:01 am

Despite the fact I reside in Brazilian , When i always draw these daily. They are simply similar to definitely the wow gold, i’ve got the particular proverb classic upright. Those are the very best i’m able to draw these people everywhere. I am getting These individuals Presently !

Written By wow gold on July 19th, 2014 @ 10:46 am

These wow gold are wonderful!I’ve had them only for few weeks but I used them a whole lot throughout the Thanksgiving break. I had been giving many thanks for them all the way through.these wow gold go together with any outfit. I would purchase them with no question yet again and all over again.I actually want to buy some additional quickly!=)

Written By wow gold on July 19th, 2014 @ 4:21 pm

I really like all of these sooo a large amount of just appreciate buy wow gold!!! They are the generally extraordinary buy wow gold in fact! I am a wide number of enhances whenever i carry this type of!!

Written By buy wow gold on July 21st, 2014 @ 8:06 pm

Hi there everyone, it’s my first pay a visit at this web site, and paragraph is really fruitful for me, keep up posting these types of articles.

Written By on July 22nd, 2014 @ 10:32 am
Written By coches on August 31st, 2014 @ 1:03 pm

Please pay a visit to the web sites we comply with, which includes this one, because it represents our picks through the web.

Written By Google on October 16th, 2014 @ 7:29 am


  1. Pro Blogger News  on March 16th, 2011 @ 10:12 pm
  2. complicated words | Hangman blog  on March 17th, 2011 @ 12:02 am

Add a Comment

  • required, use real name
  • required, will not be published
  • optional, your blog address